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The connector blocks to the relays CT inputs are provided with internal shorting links inside the relay which will automatically short the current transformer circuits before they are broken when the board is removed. The recommended minimum protective conductor earth wire alsgom is 2.

Micom P442 Numerical Distance Protection Relays

For more detailed information on other possible connection arrangements refer to the manual for the Courier master alstoom software and the manual for the KITZ protocol converter.

Depending on the password configuration settings, it may be necessary to enter a password before the alarm messages can be cleared see section on password entry. A typical setting for this window is 40ms as shown in Figure 15, although this can be altered in the menu LoL: MiCOM provides the ability to define an application solution and, through extensive communication capabilities, to integrate it with your power supply control system.

When all pages of the fault record have been viewed, the following prompt will appear: To use the rear port with IEC communication, the relays communication settings must be configured. To this end the software is split into tasks.

This includes digital signal processing such as Fourier filtering and ancillary tasks such slstom the measurements. Optical power meters should be used to determine the operation or signal level of the device. The default settings will initially be placed in the scratchpad and will only be used by the relay after they have been confirmed.

Each section also gives an extract from the respective menu columns to demonstrate how the settings are applied to the relay. However the menu selected default display will be restored following the menu time-out elapsing. Thus the residual current xlstom is: RP2 Address Since up to 32 relays can be connected p4422 one K-bus spur, as indicated in figure 10, it is necessary for each relay to have a unique address so that messages from the master control station are accepted by one relay only.


In addition, the primary star point of the VT must be earthed. To allow time for a blocking signal to arrive, a short time delay on aided tripping must be used.

Each new message is re-transmitted at user-configurable intervals until the maximum interval is reached, in order to overcome possible corruption due to interference, and collisions. The second bus is a serial link which is used exclusively for communicating the digital sample values from the input module to the main processor board.

This is achieved through the use of programmable logic gates and delay timers. The levels of access are summarised in Table 2. The following table shows the relay menu for overcurrent protection, including the available setting ranges and factory defaults.

X, The second stage earth fault overcurrent element can be configured as inverse time. The IDMT characteristic available on the first stage is defined by the following formula: Voltage and current connections shall be made using insulated crimp terminations to ensure that terminal block insulation requirements are maintained for safety. Alstom Grid strongly recommends that these contacts are hardwired into the substation’s automation system, for alarm purposes. A full portfolio of protection relays.

The high-speed algorithms will be started if U OR I is detected on one sample. For example, the system services software provides drivers for items such as the LCD display, the keypad and the remote communication ports, and controls the boot of the processor and downloading of the processor code into SRAM from non-volatile flash EPROM at power up. Technical Guide, includes information on the application of the relay and a technical description of its features. This is brought out to terminals on the back of the relay so that it can be used to drive the optically isolated digital inputs.

In particular, underfrequency implies that the net load is in excess of the available generation. The settings associated with any function that is disabled are made invisible, i. Heavy duty terminal blocks are used at the rear of the relay for the current and voltage signal connections. Methods such as resistance earthing make the detection of earth faults difficult.

In the relay menu firstly check that the Comms settings cell in the Configuration column is set to Visible, then move to the Communications column. Accidental touching of exposed terminals If working in an area of restricted space, such as a cubicle, where there is a risk of electric shock due to accidental touching of terminals which do not comply with IP20 rating, then a suitable protective barrier should be provided.


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This will be affected to a lesser extent than the measurement of negative sequence current alone, since the ratio is approximately constant with variations in load current. Note that in practice, if the required fault study information is not available, aostom setting must adhere to the minimum threshold previously outlined, employing a suitable time delay for co-ordination with downstream devices.

Under certain conditions however, these alztom schemes will still result in time delayed tripping. Figure 3 section 0 – The unblocking function if enabled, carries out a function similar to Carrier receive logic. To do this firstly set the Copy from cell to the protection setting group to zlstom copied, then set the Copy to cell to the protection group where the copy is to be placed. The watchdog facility provides two output relay contacts, one normally open and one normally closed which are driven by the processor board.

The relay automatically uses the largest phase current for input to the thermal model. Time delays should be sufficient to override any transient dips in frequency, as well as to provide time for the frequency controls in the system to respond. Current transformer supervision – To raise an alarm should one or more of the connections from the phase CTs become faulty. The opto-isolators are used with the digital signals for the same reason as the transformers with the analogue signals; to isolate the relays electronics from the power system environment.

This chapter includes information on the self-checking features and diagnostics of the relay. They offer complete, cost-effective and highly reliable protection for operating machines. To select the required column heading use the and keys.

Note that the thermal time constants given in the above tables are typical only.